Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Institut Agro Carnot_Qualiment

Internet de l'unité STLO Science et Technologie du Lait et de l'Oeuf

STLO Research Unit

Exfoliative toxin E, a new Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor with host-specific activity

Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen which represents a worldwide concern in both human- and animal- health. Human nose and skin are its primary ecological niches, but some S. aureus clones have evolved and adapted to other hosts, such as bovine, ovine or caprine ruminants. Here, we investigated the host-specific activity of a new type toxin, the exfoliative toxin ETE.

S. aureus produces numerous virulence factors, some of which are secreted toxins with potent deleterious activity on the host tissues, including the Exfoliative toxins (ET). These ETs specifically recognize and hydrolyze the desmoglein 1 protein (Dsg1), causing a dissociation of keratinocytes in human and animal skin, which results in the “staphylococcal scalded skin” syndrome. To date, three different ET serotypes (ETA, ETB and ETD) are described. We discovered a new type of Exfoliative toxin (ETE), which is specifically associated to S. aureus strains isolated from ovine host.

In this work, we characterized ETE activity and specificity:

  • ETE amino acid sequence is different from those of the already described ETs,
  • ETE caused exfoliation in vivo on neonate mice,
  • ETE is active in vitro on the human, murine, swine, ovine and caprine desmoglein proteins Dsg,
  • ETE is not active on canine or bovine desmoglein proteins Dsg1.


Effect of exfoliative toxin on epithelial cells
image ETE

The new  exfoliative toxin ETE produced by Staphylococcus aureus
causes microscopic blisters (indicated by the arrow)in neonatal mice

Molecular modelling revealed a correlation between
the preferred orientation of ETE docking on its Dsg1
cleavage site and species-specific cleavage activity

ETE is thus a new S. aureus virulence factor frequently associated with ovine S. aureus isolates. It is also a new example of host specialization in S. aureus. The ete gene is found in S. aureus strains associated with mild mastitis in ewes. It may therefore be a marker of S. aureus virulence in ewe mastitis. Whether and how it provides selective advantages for S. aureus colonization and persistence in the udder still needs to be clarified.





Read more

Imanishi I., A. Nicolas, A.-C. Barbosa Caetano, T. L. de Paula Castro, N. Rocha Tartaglia, R. Mariutti, E. Guédon, S. Even, N. Berkova, R. K. Arni, N. Seyffert, V. Azevedo, K. Nishifuji and Y. Le Loir. 2019. Exfoliative toxin E, a new Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor with host-specific activity. Scientific Reports 9:16336. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-52777-3 


Yves Le Loir •

>>> To Research Team