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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Bouchet Anne-Sophie

Genetic architecture of seed yield and its components in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) grown under limiting nitrogen condition

Thesis started octobre 1st 2012, defended in novembre 30th 2015

Fund: Grant from the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research

Direction: Nathalie Nesi, Anne Laperche & Michel Renard

Abstract:

The increase of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) oil production to answer the demand for human consumption and industrial applications requires the optimisation of seed yield in a context of reduction of inputs, including the nitrogen fertilization. Genetic approaches are a way to respond to this challenge. Indeed, determining the genomic regions (QTLs) and mechanisms controlling seed yield components under nitrogen limitation is a prerequisite for plant breeding programs. In this context, the scientific questions raised in this thesis are: i) what is the genetic architecture of seed yield components in rapeseed grown under limiting nitrogen condition? ii) how do the QTLs interact with the environment, and especially with the nitrogen stress?, and iii) how the combination of agronomic, genetic and genomic information can lead to the improvement of traits of interest in rapeseed? A strategy of QTL detection by linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses was set up on two biparental populations and a winter oilseed rape diversity set. Those populations were trialled in seven location and six growing seasons (2009-2014) under low and sufficient nitrogen conditions. For each trial, seven seed yield-related traits were acquired. Few genotype × nitrogen condition interactions were detected and an important number of QTLs were common to the two nitrogen regimes. On the contrary, strong genotype × environment interactions were evidenced for most of the traits under study and the majority of the QTLs were location-specific. Ten critical genomic regions for yield associated traits stable through the environments and populations were identified and their structural organization in the rapeseed genome was investigated. The genetic control of oil content was then studied by combining the information from ten independent reports, the genomic information provided by the recent release of the B. napus genome and the haplotype variations among a winter oilseed rape population within one particular region identified on the A1 chromosome.