Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Rennes 1 University Logo Igepp

Home page

Faes Pascal

Catabolism of proline and GABA in oilseed rape : impact of water and nitrogen deficiency

PhD defended december 17th, 2014
Direction: Carole Deleu & Marie-Françoise Niogret


In the context of climate change and recent regulation concerning nitrogen inputs, the oilseed rape yields may be severely decreased because its crop requires significant nitrogen supply to reach high yield performance. Moreover, as water deficit induces the accumulation of some nitrogen compounds in oilseed rape, it is likely that this could lead to diversion of significant amounts of nitrogen to the vegetative organs at the expense of the reproductive ones and therefore of the yield. In oilseed rape, the metabolic response to water deficit results in a very high proline accumulation and, to a lesser extent, an increased content of GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), both these amino acids known for their response to many environmental stresses in most species. The objective of the work presented here was to determine how the metabolism of proline and GABA contributes to the nitrogen allocation during plant development under optimal conditions and under water stress and/or nitrogen depletion. To answer this question, we have chosen to characterize two major enzymatic pathways involved in the catabolism of proline and GABA, proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) and GABA transaminase (GABA-T), and assess the impact of water and/or nitrogen deficiency on these pathways. This study has required to preliminary identify the genes encoding these enzymes in order to initiate a functional approach. The results show the presence of multiple copies of ProDH and GABA-T genes in the oilseed rape genome. Analysis of their expression profiles suggests that sub-functionalization processes are occurring, leading to the specific expression of some copies in response to stress, and some in developmental processes. Comparison of metabolic profiles with specific profiles of transcripts allows us to hypothesize about the role of these pathways in management of nitrogen. The combined study of proline and GABA metabolisms suggests the existence of relationships between them. Finally, the use of seedlings allows - further studying the regulation of genes in the early stages of development - and highlighting the deleterious effects of the inhibition of GABA-T by a pharmacological approach. In conclusion these results supply information on the regulation of these two enzymes and provide answers about the functional roles of proline and GABA catabolisms in the management processes of water and nitrogen in oilseed rape. These works constitute a first step in validation process of these genes as putative candidates for oilseed rape breeding programs to select genotypes better adapted to future environmental conditions.