Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Institut Agro Rennes Angers Université Rennes Logo Igepp

Home page

Possible role of insulin in the phenotypic plasticity in the pea aphid


  • 2 years project, started 2017
  • Collaboration between Inra-Igepp (Denis Tagu) and Inria-Rennes (Jacques Nicolas)
  • Soutien INRA SPE
  • Contacts:

Aphids, which are important plant pests, adapt to seasonal periodism by developing alternative phenotypes. A viviparous asexual reproduction clonal process occurs in spring and summer and produces only parthenogenetic females, under long days. In the fall, when the photoperiod decreases, sexual morphs are produced, including oviparous sexual females. Eggs are laid before winter and a diapause allows a hatching in spring, when climatic conditions are again favorable. Deciphering the molecular processes of this phenotypic plasticity is still a challenge: photoperiodism is a biological switch that regulates most animal behaviors and plant life traits, in order to adapt to changing environment. Since 1970, it is known that in aphids, the photoperiodic signal is sensed by the pars intercerebralis, a specific area in the brain, but the molecule and the mechanisms associated with this sensing are still unknown. Several findings (anatomy, transcriptomic and genomic data) allow us to identify Insulin-Like Peptides (especially ILP-1 and ILP-5) as neurohormones that could be the candidates for this photoperiodic sensing in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. The demonstration of this hypothesis would represent an important step in the knowledge of how this pest adapts to its environment through photoperiodic signals. This project aims at testing the hypothesis that ILPs are key elements in the triggering of the photoperiodic response for the reproductive mode plasticity. We plan to i) localize by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization the neurosecretory cells producing insulin, ii) track the axons of these cells of the pars intercerebralis by anterograde labelling (from the cellular body to the synapse), and 3) analyze the expression and regulation of the corresponding mRNAs in the brain of sexual and asexual females. These demonstrations could then be extended to functional analyses using CRISPR-Cas9 to check for the direct role of these ILPs in the phenotypic plasticity of the reproductive mode in aphids.

Schema insuphilimid 1

From Le Trionnaire et al. 2009 BMC Genomics 10:456

Schema insuphilamid 2

Figure 3 Nässel, Front Physiol 2013