Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie

Purpose

Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security

Session

Tarteaucitron

Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie

Purpose

Shelf life

atid

Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months

atuserid

Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months

atidvisitor

Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inrae.fr or by post at :

INRAE

24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Institut Agro Rennes Angers Rennes 1 University Logo Igepp

Home page

ANR SexAphid

Changing of reproductive mode, a balanced affair between genetics and environment

ANR SexAphid

  • 3-years project (started January 2018)
  • Coordinator: Denis Tagu (IGEPP Rennes) - Jean-René Huynh (partner CNRS Collège de France)
  • Contact : denis.tagu@inrae.fr

Aphids are insects that feed on plants. Their success as crop pests is mainly due to their high demographic and adaptation capacities in relation with their variation in reproductive modes. The “SexAphid” project aims at identifying and characterizing the loci, sequences and genes responsible for a key adaptive trait: the reproductive mode variation. A pluridisciplinary approach - based on genetic, functional genomics and ecology - will tackle this variation in reproductive mode which largely influences the risk of aphid outbreaks on a wide range of cultivated plants.

ANR_Figure_Cycle

Aphids are insect pests that are capable of two reproductive modes: an asexual viviparous reproduction, clonal, rapid and efficient during spring and summer, and an oviparous sexual reproduction, in autumn, that allows genetic combinations. The eggs made from this sexual mode are cold-resistant and allow survival during hard winters. The populations that alternate of reproductive modes are called “CP” (Cyclical Parthenogenesis) and can combine the two advantages of being clonal (short term adaptation) and sexual (long term adaptation). This capacity of aphids to alternate between reproductive modes is however sometimes lost in aphid populations: such populations are no more able to produce eggs and might disappear if winter temperatures are low; such populations are called “OP” (“Obligate Parthenogenesis”). Climate plays a key role on the distribution between those two types of populations: populations still able to produce sexual individuals will have an advantage under continental climates, whereas populations that have lost the capacity to produce sexual individuals will have an advantage under warmer climates. For temperate climates, both types of populations can co-exist, with different occurrences from one year to another, depending on the winter temperatures.

SexAphid aims at:

  1. Characterizing and identifying the loci and gene functions that differentiate sexual and asexual populations,
  2. Assessing the frequency distribution of sexual and asexual populations in the last 15 years, in relation with climatic periods, in particular winter temperatures.

SexAphid focuses on the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum for which a lot of genomics and genetics data and tools are already available. A previous work already identified a genomic zone covering 10 cM of the X chromosome as being very linked to the CP/OP phenotype. We aim to restrict this zone and to define the genomic loci that are tightly linked with the phenotype of interest, and to point out candidate genes. The functions of those candidate genes will be deeply studied by spatio-temporal expression analyses in different sexual and/or asexual populations. Genome editing techniques such as CRISPR-CAS9 will allow testing the precise roles of some of the candidate genes in the control of OP/CP phenotype. These polymorphic characterizations will be used to DNA-type and track wild populations on the pea aphid, captured during the last 15 years, and archived in the lab, in order to test for the presence of correlations between sexual/asexual population frequencies and winter temperatures. As aphids are pest for crops, this work should pave the road for the future development of tools to predict and prevent aphid infestation, in order to improve insect pest management. Our hypothesis is that winter temperature increase in a temperate climate might favor the development of asexual populations and thus increase the damage caused by aphids to crops.