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INRA
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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Homoeologous recombination

Introduction of genes into wheat and oilseed rape from related species and gene flow assessment

Research

Context and Issues

A polyploid species must have a regular meiosis generating genetically balanced gametes although it derives from species sharing a common ancestor. That necessitates inhibition of chromosomal pairing between related genomes (homeologous genomes) which can be due either to enough divergence between genomes or genetic control of pairing and recombination. Understanding of involved mechanisms can allow through their inhibition (1) either to increase frequencies of gene transfer from related species, (2) or to modify genome organization through increasing copy number of a genomic region of interest. Similarly, genomic relationship between genomes can affect the frequency of gene flow from crop to weeds. 

In wheat, Ph1 gene carried by chromosome arm 5BL constitutes the major component of a genetic system inhibiting meiotic pairing between homoeologous chromosomes. The recessive mutation ph1b which is a deletion of a chromosomal segment (70Mb) with Ph1 induces recombination between wheat chromosomes and those of related species carrying gene of interest in interspecific hybrids or between wheat homoeologous chromosomes to develop isohomoeoallelic lines or intermediate stage.

In oilseed rape, we have shown that the level of pairing between genomes A and C in haploids of B. napus is essentially due to a major gene (PrBn for Pairing regulator in B. napus). Different strategies are developed to introduce gene of interest, especially disease resistance genes in oilseed rape. We also assessed to impact of gene location in oilseed rape on gene flow within the genome of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), a common weed.

Methodology

  • Classical cytogenetic based on interspecific hybridization
  • Molecular cytogenetic (GISH, FISH)
  • Genetic mapping
  • Disease resistance tests and seed quality analyses
  • Field experiments

Main Result

In wheat:

  • In the bread wheat, the translocation line carrying 1BS.1RL has been adopted and transferred in the wheat because of the presence of resistance genes from rye to several diseases and pests, such as genes conferring resistance to leaf rust (Lr26), stem rust (Sr31) and stripe rust (Yr9). However, the 1RS.1BL has not been able to benefit for the bread-making quality. We have developed three translocation lines (1RS.1AL, 1BS.1RL and 1RS.1BL) carrying the same 1R in the genetic background Courtot and evaluated the bread-making quality and agronomic traits in different cultures conditions (classical and low entrants). Thus, the 1RS.1AL have showed a yield and bread-making quality superior compare at 1BS.1RL.
  • High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence the bread wheat quality. We have reported the replacement of the locus Glu-A1 by the locus Glu-D1 encoding the HMW-GS (2–12) in a partial isohomoeoallelic lines of the French bread wheat variety. Thus, we have exploited the novel translocated 1AS.1AL-1DL chromosome in durum wheat in order to develop durum lines presenting novel properties. The translocated chromosome was first introduced into durum wheat represents 84 Mb, it appeared worthwhile to shorten it through homoeologous recombination induced by the ph1c mutation. Two rounds of recombination were performed. The shortest interstitial 1DL segment measured 9.19 Mb and could not be visualized by genomic in situ hybridization. Such reduced transfer not previously achieved hitherto provides regularity of the meiotic pairing and will allow the use of those subunits absent in Triticum durum wheat species for direct exploitability in breeding.
  • Yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most severe wheat disease worldwide. Crop losses have ranged from 10% to 70% and up to 100% in extreme conditions. Eighty‐two resistance genes, designated Yr, have been identified. Among them, Yr17 derived from Aegilops ventricosa and located on chromosome 2A has been widely used in wheat breeding. However, it had been overcome already. Through recombination of the Ae. ventricosa Yr17‐carrying 6Nv chromosome with 2D of wheat using monosomic lines, we introduced Yr17 onto chromosome 2D. Then, lines carrying Yr17 on both 2A and 2D were generated. Yr17 double dose lines were fully resistant, while those with the Yr17 gene only on either 2A or 2D had intermediate resistance reactions towards one or the other or both pathotypes.

 In oilseed rape:

  • Introduction of Rlm10 and Rlm6 from black and brown mustards conferring resistance to Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans)
  • Gene flow assessment from oilseed rape to wild radish. The objective is to assess the impact of the position of a transgene in oilseed rape genome on its putative transfer (gene flow through homoeologous recombination) to closely related weed. First, we selected markers specific of oilseed rape genome, well spread on A and C genomes but absent in wild radish. These markers were used for screening of plants produced after four generations of pollination of F1 interspecific hybrids (ACRr, n=28) by the wild radish under field conditions, showing a chromosome number close to the one of the weed (RrRr, 2n=18). We observed that four oilseed rape genomic regions are significantly more prone to be introduced in wild radish genome that some others.

Partners

  • GIS Club 5
  • GIE Blé dur
  • UMR GDEC (INRAE Clermont-Ferrand) (G. Branlard)
  • UMR IJPB Versailles (E. Jenczewski)
  • UMR BIOGER (INRAE Grignon)
  • UMR MIA INRAE Jouy en Josas
  • UMR Agro-Ecologie Dijon
  • Université Orsay
  • Terra inovia
  • University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

Funding and Support (last 5 years)

  • ANR Ploid-Ploid (2013-2015) Caractérisation des réponses à la polyploïdie et l’aneuploïdie chez les angiospermes, utilisant le modèle blé. (PI : B. Chalhoub)
  • FSOV (2012-2015) : Valorisation de nouveaux gènes de résistance et de qualité issus d’Aegilops tauschii (P.I : Pierre Rigolle)
  • CASDAR (2012-2015) : Création et caractérisation de génotypes de blé dur introgressés de gluténines du blé tendre afin de sécuriser une haute qualité technologique sous fumure azotée limitante. (P.I. J. Jahier)
  • CASDAR ‘Mosadurum’ (2020-2023)   Pour des variétés de blé dur résistantes aux mosaïques (P.I. D. Hourcade)
  • PIA Genius (2015-2020) Genome Engineering Improvement for Useful plants of a Sustainable agriculture (PI: P. Rogowski)
  • Club Phoma (2021-2025) (PI: R. Delourme and M. Balesdent)

Publications  (last 5 years)

Adamczyk-Chauvat K., Delaunay S., Vannier A., Francois C., Thomas G., Eber F., Lodé M., Gilet M., Huteau V., Morice J., Nègre S., Falentin C., Coriton O., Darmency H., Alrustom B., Jenczewski E., Rousseau-Gueutin M. & Chèvre A. M. (2017). Gene Introgression in Weeds Depends on Initial Gene Location in the Crop: Brassica napus-Raphanus raphanistrum Model. Genetics, 206(3), 1361-1372.  https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.117.201715

Bouguennec A., Lesage V. S., Gateau I., Sourdille P., Jahier J. & Lonnet P. (2018). Transfer of Recessive skr Crossability Trait into Well-adapted French Wheat Cultivar Barok through Marker-assisted Backcrossing Method. Cereal Research Communications, 46(4), 604-615.  https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.46.2018.043

Coriton O., Faye A., Paux E., Lemoine J., Huteau V., Branlard G. & Jahier J. (2019). Development of 1AS.1AL-1DL durum wheat chromosome carrying Glu-D1a locus encoding high molecular weight glutenin subunits 2 + 12. Molecular breeding, 39(3), 32.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-019-0942-2

Coriton O., Jahier J., Leconte M., Huteau V., Trotoux G., Dedryver F. & de Vallavieille-Pope C. (2019). Double dose efficiency of yellow rust resistance gene Yr17 in bread wheat lines. Plant Breeding, on line.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pbr.12768

Jahier J., Coriton O., Deffains D., Arnaud D. & Chalhoub B. (2017). Revisiting meiotic pairing in wheat synthetics in relation to the evolution of the meiotic system in wheat. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 303(9), 1311-1316.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-017-1425-8

Jahier J., Deffains D., Huteau V. & Coriton O. (2018). Agronomic evaluation of AABB wheat tetraploids extracted from wheat neo-allohexaploids. Euphytica, 214(11), Unsp 212.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-018-2293-1

Pasquariello M., Ham J., Burt C., Jahier J., Paillard S., Uauy C. & Nicholson P. (2017). The eyespot resistance genes Pch1 and Pch2 of wheat are not homoeoloci. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 130(1), 91-107.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-016-2796-x

Plissonneau C., Rouxel T., Chèvre A. M., Van de Wouw A. P. & Balesdent M.-H. (2018). One gene-one name: the AvrLmJ1 avirulence gene of Leptosphaeria maculans is AvrLm5. Molecular Plant Pathology, 19(4), 1012-1016.  https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12574